Document Type: Research paper


Economic Cost, Poor Sanitation, Safe Drinking Water


The global climate can be affected via management of the forests in all parts of the world. A general global mathematical optimization model including the central components in, and relevant links between, energy production, the fossil industry, forestry and global warming, is defined. The average forest harvesting level is defined as proportional to the area under active forest management. If the area of active forest management increases, the area covered by forests in dynamic equilibria with net CO2 absorption close to zero, decreases. Hence, the absorbed amount of CO2 is an increasing function of the forest harvesting level. The total economic result in the form of the present value over an infinite horizon, is optimized, with consideration of global warming, subject to a constraint that makes sure that the total energy production is held constant. The Karush Kuhn Tucker conditions and the parameter assumptions define the equation system of the relevant optimum conditions. The results are derived in general form via the differentiated first order optimum conditions and matrix algebra. The results proved that if it is considered more important to avoid global warming, then we should increase the use of forest energy inputs and decrease the use of fossil energy inputs in the combined heat and power industry. The methodology made it possible to derive quite general conclusions from a model that is not dependent on particular empirically estimated numerical parameter values. The derived results contradict the common opinion that the best way to use the forest with consideration of global warming, is to maximize the stock level in the forest, and if possible, to completely stop harvesting.


  • Impact of poor water and sanitation on household economy was investigated.
  • Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to assess the impact of poor water and sanitation on households economy.
  • People have not access to proper sanitation facilities in most of the rural settlements .
  • The diseases ratio was very high because of poor water and sanitation condition.
  • Unawareness of WATSAN related diseases affect adversely on household economy by hospitalization, transportation and medical costs.