Document Type: Research paper


Economic Cost, Poor Sanitation, Safe Drinking Water


Today, Metal accumulation in edible part of plants is of great concern. The present research work was carried out in Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan to examine and measured the level of heavy metals in various part of Oryza sativa variety Kinat plant (such as roots, shoots and grains) associated to soil around root area. The samples were taken from five different sites of investigated area. According to results, the mean level of trace metals (mg/kg) in grains varied from Cd (2.49-5.52), Zn (5.8-10.78), Cu (4.82-7.85), Co (1.48-6.52), Fe (8.68-14.73), Mn (6.87-13.93), and Ni (2.3-8.34) correspondingly. Excluding Cd, the absorption of all metals under inspection were within safe limits recommended by FAO/WHO. Pollution load index for Cd was highest at all sites. Enrichment coefficient of Co, Cd and Cu were greater. Bioaccumulation factor at all studied sites was present in that order: Cu˃ Zn˃ Fe˃ Mn˃ Co˃ Ni˃ Cd. Translocation factor was present at five different sites as Mn˃ Fe˃ Cu˃ Zn˃ Co˃ Cd˃ Ni. The values of health risk index for all inspected metals were less than 1 and was within safe limits. Consequently, Pollution load index at canal water irrigated site was very high and need proper attention.


  • Impact of poor water and sanitation on household economy was investigated.
  • Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to assess the impact of poor water and sanitation on households economy.
  • People have not access to proper sanitation facilities in most of the rural settlements .
  • The diseases ratio was very high because of poor water and sanitation condition.
  • Unawareness of WATSAN related diseases affect adversely on household economy by hospitalization, transportation and medical costs.